Toilet outside the city, what to do with drains

Those who live and move out of town for the summer, away from the benefits of civilization, regularly face the problem of disposal of sewage waste ...


Country toilet with a cesspool
Many people wonder how to make sure that the disposal of sewage waste is not a burden, and to do this as little as possible. In fact, there are not so many paths.

The simplest and most inexpensive method is the construction of a toilet with a cesspool, such a toilet is easy to maintain and does not require large investments.

But with all the advantages listed above, it turns out that there are more disadvantages, and these are: not environmental friendliness, the presence of odors in the neighborhood and in the toilet itself, the appearance of flies, the need for periodic cleaning of the cesspool. Moving up the stages of development of suburban "toilet construction" we are moving towards another widely used version of the so-called portable dry closet.

 

Portable dry closet


Portable dry closet A portable dry closet is a portable toilet, it works autonomously and does not require connection to the sewerage, electricity and water supply, the dry closet consists of two detachable tanks: the upper one is a seat and a reservoir with water, the lower one is a drainage tank. In the lower tank, with the help of a special liquid, effluents are dissolved and unpleasant odors are neutralized. After the bottom tank is full, the dissolved waste can be drained into the designated area or compost.

Pros: portable dry closet is easy to use, odorless, hygienic and environmentally friendly, convenient for patients who are unable to move far.

Disadvantages of such a device: a relatively small reservoir that fills up quickly with regular use, the need to constantly buy liquid for filling into the lower reservoir. Such a toilet is more suitable for infrequent use or some kind of emergency, whether it is a trip to the sea in a camper or a breakdown of the main toilet in the country.

Peat dry closet


Peat toilet - powder closet Next, we will move on to another brother of the portable dry closet "peat dry closet". A peat dry closet is essentially the same powder closet, but in a new look (more compact and modern).
A peat toilet is a plastic case with a separate container for peat or sawdust, the upper part is removable, there is a toilet seat with a lid on it, it is possible to connect a ventilation pipe.

The principle of operation of a peat toilet is simple, after use, you need to twist a special handle located at the top of the tank, from which peat, previously poured into the tank, partially spills out onto the surface of the contents of the toilet.

Thanks to the lattice double bottom, the liquid from the peat toilet is discharged using a special tube to the relief, or into a separate container located outside.

The advantages of a peat toilet are obvious: there is no smell (when the hood is on), a decent appearance, environmental friendliness (unless, of course, drainage of liquid to the relief is excluded).

There are also disadvantages: a relatively high price with a fairly simple design, the need to regularly purchase consumables (peat, sawdust), and the need to periodically empty the toilet tank has not disappeared.

Septic tank


Moving further in the reasoning, we come to the conclusion that in order to avoid regular cleaning of the toilet, it is necessary to separate the toilet itself and a container (preferably large) for collecting sewage waste. This container is called a septic tank.

Septic tank Sewer septic tanks are containers of various forms, divided in the inner part into chambers. The septic tank is buried in the ground to a certain depth because sewage flows into it by gravity through the sewer line, then, after cleaning in a septic tank, by gravity or with the help of a drain pump, it is discharged through (filtration fields) or pumped out and taken out by an assenizer.

Septic tanks can be of different designs, their difference mainly lies in the number and volume of internal chambers, the most common are two-chambers. Septic tanks can be made of different materials - (concrete, brick, metal, but mostly plastic).

The principle of operation of the septic tank is as follows, wastewater entering the first chamber is cleaned of coarse suspension naturally (large particles settle), then the liquid flows through a special hole into the second chamber where further purification takes place by sediment and waste treatment using anaerobic bacteria.

The longer the wastewater is in the septic tank, the cleaner it is at the outlet. When planning the installation of a septic tank on your site, it is necessary to take into account the real volume of discharge, since by installing a septic tank less than the required volume, you run the risk of facing a rapid overflow and under-treatment of the discharged water.

Advantages of septic tanks: the ability to locate the toilet in the house, environmental friendliness, lack of odors with a properly established cleaning process, cleaning the septic tank once every 1-1.5 years.

Cons: they also exist: the biggest is the need to allocate space for a septic tank and much larger areas for filtration fields. Once every 5 years, it is necessary to replace the sand in the filtration field, the high cost of work, with prolonged downtime, the bacteria die, it becomes necessary to repopulate them, after which it takes time to return to normal performance, the need for irregular but periodic cleaning.

Biological treatment plant


Biological treatment station An analogue of a septic tank is a biological treatment plant; its difference from a septic tank is that all processes of wastewater decay occur in an accelerated mode without compromising quality. There are a number of models and modifications of deep biological treatment stations for suburban areas on the market.

The principle of operation of all autonomous sewage stations is approximately the same, wastewater entering the station passes through a cycle through several sedimentation tanks where a larger suspension settles. In the settling chambers, constant aeration takes place, due to which a favorable environment is created in the station for the development of anaerobic bacteria, which are the main cleaning mechanism, the forced supply of oxygen to the station accelerates the process of wastewater treatment.

Further post-treatment of water can be carried out using ultraviolet radiation, the water at the exit from such a station reaches a high degree of purification, has no odor and does not contain harmful elements.

The advantages of such stations are undeniable: environmental friendliness, autonomy (controlled by a microcontroller), the possibility of discharging treated water to the relief without additional additional treatment, the existing structures of the stations are designed for different volumes of sewage waste discharge, cleaning from silt remaining after processing is not difficult and has large intervals.

Cons: biological treatment plants are very sensitive to the presence of washing powders and other chemicals in wastewater, which can kill bacteria, autonomy is called into question in the event of a power outage, although of course the descriptions to the stations mention that in the event of a power outage, water flows by gravity.
Probably all the same, the cleaning efficiency decreases, at least ultraviolet devices cannot work without electricity, most installations are designed for permanent residence, that is, for a constant discharge of sewage water, long pauses in use are not desirable.

Based on the above information, there is a choice, but you need to make it intelligently, and it should be the only correct and balanced one, focused on your specific tasks, goals and financial capabilities.

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